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20 “He did enjoy hurting”: Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004.

21 Watanabe’s behavior: Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP; Martindale, pp. 95–110, 130, 144–55; Robert Martindale, telephone interview, January 2, 2005; Norquist, pp. 277–79, 283–84; Wade, pp. 103–08; Weinstein, pp. 228–33, 247, 256; Derek (Nobby) Clarke, No Cook’s Tour (Hereford, Eng.: Authors OnLine, 2005), pp. 114–16; Donald Knox, Death March: The Survivors of Bataan (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983), p. 377; James, pp. 277–83.

22 Watanabe’s fame: James, p. 278; Affidavit, Arthur Laurence Maher, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

23 “punishment camp”: Martindale, pp. 104–05.

24 “the most vicious guard”: Affidavit, Arthur Laurence Maher, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

25 “He was absolutely”: Knox, p. 379.

26 Beating POW, then becoming placid: Weinstein, p. 230.

27 Forcing men to be his friends: Martindale, pp. 149–50; Clarke, p. 116; Robert Martindale, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

28 Watanabe despised by guards: Bush, p. 200; Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004.

29 “tense, sitting-on-the-edge-of-a-volcano”: Clarke, p. 116.





Chapter 24: Hunted


1 Louie enters main body of Omori: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

2 Lessons on avoiding the Bird: Norquist, pp. 278–79; Wade, p. 124; Bush, p. 187; Weinstein, pp. 228–33; Clarke, pp. 114–16; J. Watt Hinson, email interview, July 26, 2004.

3 The Bird’s office: Martindale, p. 78.

4 Louie not registered with Red Cross: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

5 Attacked every day: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

6 “number one prisoner”: CBS Television, “48 Hours: Race to Freedom,” 1998.

7 “After the first few days in camp”: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

8 The Bird forces officers to work: Clarke, p. 114; Martindale, p. 97; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Weinstein, p. 249.

9 Cleaning benjos: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Martindale, pp. 99–100; Lewis Bush, p. 186; Clarke, p. 114.

10 “The motto”: Martindale, p. 100.

11 Sabotage, stealing: John Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; “42nd Bombardment Squadron: Addendum to Squadron History,” September 11, 1945, AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Ala.; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Milton McMullen, telephone interview, February 16, 2005; Martindale, pp. 127–28, 156–72; Wade, pp. 97–99, 129; Bush, p. 161; Johan Arthur Johansen, email interview, March 26, 2005; Weinstein, pp. 243–45; Gloria Ross, “A Singular Man,” Airman, January 1982; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

12 “University of Thievery”: Martindale, pp. 168–69.

13 Stealing ingredients for cake: Ibid., p. 128.

14 Louie gets sugar for Tinker: Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

15 Only two deaths after school created: Martindale, p. 169.

16 Louie beaten: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

17 Sakaba watches beating: Ibid.

18 The Bird holding power over superiors: Norquist, p. 279; Wade, p. 120; Weinstein, p. 255.

19 Watanabe’s impunity: Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004.

20 Kind guards: Bush, p. 200; Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004; Boyington, pp. 302–03; Martindale, p. 195; Norquist, p. 288; Gamble, p. 336; Yukichi Kano, “Statement of Yukichi Kano Tokio P.O.W. Camp H.Q. (Omori),” undated, from papers of Robert Martindale.

21 Red Cross inspection: Martindale, p. 123; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

22 Louie’s defiance: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

23 Postman Calls: E. Bartlett Kerr, Surrender and Survival: The Experience of American POWs in the Pacific, 1941–1945 (New York: William Morrow, 1985), pp. 189–90; “The Zero Hour,” Glasgow.com, http://www.glasglow.com/e2/th/The_Zero_Hour.html (accessed September 25, 2009).

24 Radio message: E. H. Stephan, postcard to Zamperini family, October 18, 1944.

25 Louie knew nothing of broadcast: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

26 Message in Trona: E. H. Stephan, postcard to Zamperini family, October 18, 1944, stamp on card.





Chapter 25: B-29


1 Louie taking wheelbarrow to Tokyo: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

2 State of Tokyo: Milton McMullen, telephone interview, February 16, 2005; Bush, pp. 213, 222–23; Weinstein, p. 248.

3 Graffiti: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

4 B-29: “Boeing B-29 Superfortress,” Military Factory, http://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/detail.asp?aircraft_id=82 (accessed October 15, 2009).

5 Steakley’s flight: E. Bartlett Kerr, Flames over Tokyo: The U.S. Army Air Forces’ Incendiary Campaign Against Japan, 1941–1945 (New York: Donald I. Fine, 1991), p. 92.

6 Earlier B-29 raids on mainland Japan: Ibid., pp. 57–60, 64–68.

7 B-29 flying over Omori: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Tom Wade, telephone interview, September 17, 2005; Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005; Martindale, pp. 166–67; Wade, pp. 138–39; Clarke, p. 147; Robert Martindale, telephone interview, January 2, 2005; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

8 “It was not their Messiah”: Martindale, p. 176.

9 Smuggling newspapers: Milton McMullen, telephone interview, February 16, 2005.

10 Distortions in Japanese press: Weinstein, p. 242.

11 Plane downed with rice ball: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

12 “Lone enemy B-29 visits Tokyo area”: Norquist, p. 287.

13 FLED IN CONSTERNATION: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

14 “Niju ku!”: Wade, p. 139.

15 The Bird beats Louie with belt: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Robert Trumbull, “Zamperini, Olympic Miler, Is Safe After Epic Ordeal,” NYT, September 9, 1945.

16 The Bird forces Maher to burn letters: Affidavit, Francis Harry Frankcom, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

17 Radio Tokyo visit: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Martindale, pp. 129–30; “42nd Bombardment Squadron: Addendum to Squadron History,” September 11, 1945, AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Ala.

18 Writing radio address: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

19 Lynn Moody: Lynn Moody Hoffman, letter to Louis Zamperini, August 14, 1998.

20 DeMille interviews Zamperinis: Sylvia Flammer, telephone interviews, October 25, 27, 2004; “Sixth War Bond Drive,” November 19, 1944, interview transcript.

21 Harvey’s wounding: Sylvia Flammer, telephone interviews, October 25, 27, 2004.

22 Moody hears new broadcast: Lynn Moody Hoffman, letter to Louis Zamperini, August 14, 1998.

23 Text of address: From papers of Louis Zamperini.

24 Visit with caller from San Marino: Handwritten notes from papers of Louis Zamperini.

25 “I was thinking”: Sylvia Flammer, telephone interviews, October 25, 27, 2004.

26 Telegram concerning broadcast: telegram, provost marshal general to Louise Zamperini, undated, from the papers of Louis Zamperini.

27 Uncle hears broadcast: “Louis Zamperini Radio Talk Heard by Uncle,” Des Moines Register, December 12, 1944.

28 Detail about guns: Sylvia Flammer, telephone interviews, October 25, 27, 2004.

29 “Payt! He’s alive!”: Payton Jordan, telephone interview, August 16, 2004.





Chapter 26: Madness


1 Radio Tokyo men return: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

2 Text of new message: From papers of Louis Zamperini.

3 Reason Louie spared from execution: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Louis Zamperini, notes from 1950 meeting with Kwajalein officer; Louis Zamperini, interview by George Hodak, Hollywood, Calif., June 1988, AAFLA.

4 Producers encourage Louie: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; “42nd Bombardment Squadron: Addendum to Squadron History,” September 11, 1945, AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Ala.

5 “Okay”: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

6 November 24, 1944, raid: Martindale, p. 177; Johan Arthur Johansen, email interview, March 26, 2005; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 4, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005; “Tokyo in Flames After Crippling Superfort Blow,” Ogden Standard Examiner, November 25, 1944; Kerr, Flames, pp. 97–101.

7 “It was a cold”: Johan Arthur Johansen, email interview, March 26, 2005.

8 Hatto sees parachuting man: Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004.

9 Sirens: Norquist, pp. 288, 291.

10 November 27 and 29–30 bombings: Ibid., p. 291.

11 Louie watches air battle: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

12 “Hikoki dame”: Ibid.

13 “You win war”: Bush, p. 207.

14 The Bird beats Martindale: Martindale, pp. 180–81.

15 The Bird leaves, then returns for fire drill: Ibid., pp. 152–53; Wade, pp. 140–41.

16 The Bird herds officers into Tokyo: Martindale, pp. 144–45; Wade, p. 141; Affidavit, Francis Harry Frankcom, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

17 The Bird makes men stand at attention: Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 4, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith.

18 “death lunge”: Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005.

19 Louie’s nightmares about the Bird: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

20 Zentsuji: Don Wall, Singapore and Beyond: The Story of the Men of the 2/20 Battalion, Told by the Survivors (Cowra, Australia: James N. Keady, 1985), pp. 307–09; Affidavit, Major Melvin Miller, from files of “The Mad Quack” (1st Lt.), POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

21 Phillipses hear of broadcast: “Lt. Allan Phillips May Be Prisoner in Tokyo,” undated article from Phillips scrapbook, NPN.

22 Major from the adjutant general’s office calls: “Lt. Allen Phillips Alive as Prisoner of the Japs; Missing Year and a Half,” undated article from Phillips scrapbook, NPN.

23 Cecy races home: Terry Hoffman, telephone interview, March 6, 2007.

24 “Words really cannot”: Reverend Russell Phillips, letter to Martha Heustis, January 5, 1945.

25 Phillipses asked to keep news secret: Kelsey Phillips, letter to Louise Zamperini, December 15, 1944.

26 Kelsey sad for other mothers: Ibid.

27 “Even though we”: Sadie Glassman, letter to Zamperinis, November 18, 1944.

28 “It is difficult”: Kelsey Phillips, letter to Louise Zamperini, December 15, 1944.

29 Red Cross packages delivered: Norquist, pp. 282, 290.

30 Official admits to giving packages to Japanese: Martindale, p. 134.

31 “We could see them throwing away”: Wade, p. 138.

32 The Bird steals forty-eight packages: Wade, p. 138; Affidavits, Francis Harry Frankcom and Fort Hammond Callahan, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

33 Apples and oranges distributed, taken back: Martindale, p. 187.

34 Louie gets Red Cross package: Louis Zamperini, POW diary.

35 Mansfield: Martindale, pp. 122–23; Norquist, pp. 287–88; Wade, pp. 137–38; Robert Martindale, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

36 Cinderella: Martindale, pp. 189–92; Wade, pp. 143–44; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 4, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith; Clarke, pp. 151–54.

37 Christmas at Zentsuji: Wall, p. 308.

38 Tokugawa comes to Omori: Bush, pp. 183, 198–99; Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004; Report of Lieutenant Lewis Bush, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

39 The Bird promoted: Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004; James, p. 280.

40 Men put feces on Bird’s rice cakes: Martindale, pp. 191–92.

41 Louie learns Bird leaving: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.





Chapter 27: Falling Down


1 Life in camp improves: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Martindale, pp. 194–95; Affidavit, Francis Harry Frankcom, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

2 Mail found in the Bird’s office: Affidavit, Francis Harry Frankcom, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vol. 1, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

3 “Trust you’re all”: Louis Zamperini, letter to family, January 6, 1945.

4 “Tell Pete”: Louis Zamperini, letter to family, January or February 1945.

5 Ofuna arrivals: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

6 Condition of Harris: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

7 Harris’s beatings: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

8 Doctor thinks Harris dying, Louie gives him Red Cross box: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Louis Zamperini, POW diary, January 15, 1945, entry.

9 Palawan massacre: Hampton Sides, Ghost Soldiers: The Epic Account of World War II’s Greatest Rescue Mission (New York: Anchor Books, 2002), pp. 7–17; Kerr, Surrender, pp. 212–15; V. Dennis Wrynn, “American Prisoners of War: Massacre at Palawan,” World War II, November 1997.

10 February 16–17 air raid: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Martindale, p. 198; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 4, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith; Frank Tremaine, “Tokyo in Flames After Record Bombing Attack,” Brainerd (Minn.) Daily Dispatch, February 16, 1945; “Navy Planes Rip Tokyo,” Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln), February 16, 1945; “Devastating War to Tokyo,” Nebraska State Journal (Lincoln), February 16, 1945.

11 American Hellcat pursues Japanese fighter: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

12 February 24 air raid: “1,600 Planes Bomb Jap Capital as All-Out Drive Launched on Iwo,” Sunday Times-Signal (Zanesville, Ohio), February 25, 1945; Kerr, Flames, pp. 138–44.

13 Transfer of POWs: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

14 Journey through Tokyo: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

15 Shadow factories: Martindale, p. 214; Kerr, Flames, p. 153.

16 Arrival at Naoetsu: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Wade, pp. 146–47.

17 “It was as if a giant frosted cake”: Wade, p. 144.

18 Louie collapses: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.





Chapter 28: Enslaved


1 Bird beaming: Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005.

2 Description of Naoetsu: Wade, pp. 148–49, 152–53; Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005; Alan B. Lyon, Japanese War Crimes: Trials of the Naoetsu Camp Guards (Loftus, Australia: Australian Military History Publications, 2000), pp. 25–34; John Cook, “Japan: C Force,” unpublished memoir; “List of Death Naoetu [sic] POW Camp, 1942–44,” Taheiyo ni Kaleru Hashi: Horyo Shuyojono Higeikei wo Keoete (Japan-Australia Society, 1996), translated from Japanese.

3 Zamperini Invitational: “United Nations Olympics Talked—New Golden Era in Track Seen When Peace Comes,” Abilene (Tex.) Reporter-News, March 5, 1945.

4 Glickman crying: CBS Television, “48 Hours: Race to Freedom,” 1998.

5 Louie sick: “42nd Bombardment Squadron: Addendum to Squadron History,” September 11, 1945, AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Ala.; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience.

6 Food, guards smoking: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience; Wade, p. 151; Ken Marvin, telephone interview, January 21, 2005.

7 “a roaring Hitlerian animal”: Wade, p. 159.

8 Officers picked by the Bird: Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

9 “just for drill”: Ken Marvin, telephone interview, January 21, 2005.

10 Slave labor: Wade, pp. 151–52; John Cook, “Japan: C Force,” unpublished memoir; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

11 Men falling into snow crevasses: Wall, p. 303.

12 Melting snow, pig’s appearance: Wade, pp. 156, 149.

13 Potato-field work: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Wade, p. 157; Affidavit, Louis Zamperini, from files on Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vols. 1–3, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP.

14 B-29 seen: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Wade, p. 157; Wall, p. 298.

15 Roosevelt’s death: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Wall, p. 298.

16 Barge duty: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Ken Marvin, telephone interview, January 21, 2005; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience; John Cook, “Japan: C Force,” unpublished memoir; Wade, pp. 160–63.