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1 Attacked on ship: “42nd Bombardment Squadron: Addendum to Squadron History,” September 11, 1945, AFHRA, Maxwell AFB, Ala.; Louis Zamperini, affidavit, John D. Murphy Collection, HIA, Stanford, Calif.; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience; Robert Trumbull, “Zamperini, Olympic Miler, Is Safe After Epic Ordeal,” NYT, September 9, 1945.

2 Sailor knocking on Louie’s head, beaten in car: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

3 Louie allowed to bathe: Ibid.

4 Meeting Sasaki, “We meet again”: Ibid.

5 “unarmed combatants”: William R. Gill and Davis P. Newton, “A Compilation of Biographical Source Documents Concerning Major William Herald Walker, U.S. Army Air Force (1919–1945), a Prisoner of War in Japan During World War II,” 1999, p. 15.

6 Life in Ofuna: Yuzuru Sanematsu, “A Record of the Aftermath of Ofuna POW Camp,” Shukan Yomiuri, August 1974, translated from Japanese; William R. Gill and Davis P. Newton, “A Compilation of Biographical Source Documents Concerning Major William Herald Walker, U.S. Army Air Force (1919–1945), a Prisoner of War in Japan During World War II,” 1999; “Ofuna: Dolder Rescue Team Report,” September 22, 1945, http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/camplists/tokyo/ofuna/ofuna.html (accessed September 20, 2009); Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Jean Balch, letter to legal section, prosecution division, SCAP, January 18, 1948; Gamble, p. 321; Affidavit, Arthur Laurence Maher, from Case Docket No. 218: Nakakichi Asoma et al. (vol. II, part 2 of 2 sections, exhibits, 1945–1949), RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), Record of the Trial File, 1945–49, NACP; John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Gregory Boyington, Baa Baa Black Sheep (New York: Bantam, 1977), pp. 251–53; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issues 1–2, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith; “Main Subject Is on Ofuna POW Camp, February 1946–July 1947” and “Main Subject Is on Ofuna POW Camp, September 1945–May 1947,” RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), Miscellaneous Subject File, NACP; information on Ofuna from the following files on Kunichi Sasaki and James Kunichi Sasaki in RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration and Prosecution Divisions (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), NACP: Kunichi Sasaki et al., 1945–1948, Investigation and Interrogation Reports; Nakakichi Asoma et al., trial, exhibits, appeal, and clemency files, NACP; Nakakichi Asoma, 1945–1952, POW 201 File, 1945–1952, Charges and Specifications, 1945–1948, NACP; Yuichi Hatto, Aa, Omori Shuyojo (Tokyo: Kyoshin Shuppan, 2004), translated from Japanese.

7 “My job”: Glenn McConnell, telephone interview, June 8, 2007.

8 “were of such intensity”: Affidavit, Glenn McConnell, from files on Sueharu Kitamura, RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), NACP.

9 “Iron must be beaten”: Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004.

10 “No strong soldiers”: Ibid.

11 “transfer of oppression”: Chang, p. 217; Tanaka, p. 204.

12 Japanese view of Westerners, “Anglo-Saxon devils”: Shoichi Ishizuka, “About Naoetsu POW Camp,” Gaiko Forum, June 2006.

13 Japanese view of capture: Yuichi Hatto, Aa, Omori Shuyojo (Tokyo: Kyoshin Shuppan, 2004), translated from Japanese; Shoichi Ishizuka, “About Naoetsu POW Camp,” Gaiko Forum, June 2006.

14 “Have regard for”: Shoichi Ishizuka, “About Naoetsu POW Camp,” Gaiko Forum, June 2006.

15 “the night of a thousand suicides”: “Cowra Outbreak, 1944,” Fact Sheet 198, National Archives of Australia, http://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/publications/fact-sheets/fs198.aspx (accessed September 23, 2009); Harry Gordon, Voyage from Shame: The Cowra Breakout and Afterwards (Brisbane: University of Queensland Press, 1994). While the Cowra incident is sometimes described simply as an escape attempt, the event’s authoritative historian, Harry Gordon, describes it as a “mass suicide bid.” While some Japanese POWs remained in camp and committed suicide or were killed by other POWs, those who made the breakout run, including hundreds who ran directly at camp machine guns, were trying to force the Australians to kill them. According to one survivor, they carried weapons to “show hostility … so they would surely be shot at” and carried implements to use to kill themselves if the Australians didn’t kill them. Some who successfully escaped later killed themselves to avoid recapture.

16 Frederick Douglass: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (Cheswold: Prestwick House, 2004), p. 33.

17 Kitamura: Files on Sueharu Kitamura, RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), NACP.

18 Hirose saves POW from beating: Affidavit, Frederick Dewitt Turnbull, from Case Docket No. 216: Katsuo Kohara (Vol. I, Record of Trial–Vol. II, Exhibits) 1945–1949, RG 331, RAOOH, WWII 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), NACP.

19 Child’s sympathy for POWs: Lewis Bush, Clutch of Circumstance (Tokyo: Okuyama, 1956), p. 184.

20 “The general opinion”: Yukichi Kano, “Statement of Yukichi Kano Tokio P.O.W. Camp H.Q. (Omori),” undated, from papers of Robert Martindale.

21 Sympathetic guard assaulted: Boyington, p. 257.

22 Food: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Boyington, pp. 270–71; Gamble, p. 328; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience.

23 “We were dying”: Jean Balch, “Yorktown Aviator: My Experience as Prisoner of War,” www.ussyorktown.com/yorktown/pow.htm (accessed July 1, 2004).

24 Beriberi: Alfred A. Weinstein, Barbed Wire Surgeon (New York: Lancer Books, 1965), p. 83; Tom Henling Wade, Prisoner of the Japanese (Kenthurst, Australia: Kangaroo, 1994), p. 44; Gamble, p. 324.

25 Tarawa: Gavan Daws, Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific (New York: William Morrow, 1994), p. 278.

26 Ballale: Peter Stone, Hostages to Freedom (Yarram, Australia: Oceans Enterprises, 2006).

27 Wake massacre: Daws, p. 279; Major Mark E. Hubbs, “Massacre on Wake Island,” Yorktown Sailor, http://www.yorktownsailor.com/yorktown/massacre.html (accessed October 18, 2009).

28 “kill-all” rule and “At such time”: Entry from the Journal of the Taiwan POW Camp H.Q. in Taihoku, Aug. 1, 1944, Document 2701, certified as Exhibit O in Document 2687; Numerical Evidentiary Documents Assembled as Evidence by the Prosecution for Use as Evidence Before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1945–1947 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1690, roll 346, frame 540), RAOOH, WWII, RG 331, NACP.

29 “If there is any fear” (May 1944 order): V. Dennis Wrynn, “American Prisoners of War: Massacre at Palawan,” World War II, November 1997.





Chapter 20: Farting for Hirohito


1 Farting guard: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

2 Maher: Affidavit, Arthur Laurence Maher, from Case Docket No. 218: Nakakichi Asoma et al. (vol. II, part 2 of 2 sections, exhibits), 1945–1949), RG 331: RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), Record of the Trial File, 1945–49; Robert Martindale, The 13th Mission (Austin: Eakin, 1998), pp. 109–10.

3 Fitzgerald: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

4 Harris: Edgar D. Whitcomb, Escape from Corregidor (New York: Paperback Library, 1967), pp. 106–59, 284; Katey Meares, email interviews, March 14, 17, 18, 27, 2008.

5 Photographic memory: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

6 Sasaki’s behavior: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Gamble, p. 323; the following records of Kunichi Sasaki and James Kunichi Sasaki, from the NACP, RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Admumstration Division and Prosecution Division: Kunichi Sasaki, Isamu Sato, Kazuo Akane, 1945–1948, Investigation and Interrogation Reports; Nakakichi Asoma et al., trial, exhibits, appeal, and clemency files; Nakakichi Asoma et al., 1945–1952, POW 201 File, 1945–1952, Charges and Specifications, 1945–1948.

7 Gaga: Glenn McConnell, telephone interview, June 8, 2007; Boyington, pp. 255–56.

8 “to rest their tortured brains”: Boyington, p. 256.

9 Phil doing calisthenics: Russell Allen Phillips, television interview, CBS, La Porte, Ind., January 1997.

10 “I’ll never fly again”: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

11 Maher tells captive to steal: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

12 Morse code: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Johan Arthur Johansen, email interview, March 26, 2005.

13 Louie tells of mother’s cooking: Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005; Boyington, p. 271; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

14 Guard nicknames: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Jean Balch, letter to Legal Section, Prosecution Division, SCAP, January 18, 1948; Boyington, p. 258.

15 Speaking offensively to guards: Boyington, pp. 267–68.

16 Convincing guard that sundial worked at night: Boyington, pp. 264–65.

17 Farting at Hirohito: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Gamble, p. 325.

18 POW diary: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

19 Guards say they shot Lincoln and torpedoed D.C.: Constance Humphrey, “A Taste of Food from Skies,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 29, 1946.

20 Papers stolen during interrogation: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

21 Fall 1943: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 1, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith.

22 Officials stealing food: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Boyington, pp. 290–91.

23 “To give you an idea”: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

24 Smoking: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

25 Collapsing at baseball, editor comes to camp: Ibid.

26 Race against a Japanese runner: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience.

27 Asking Sasaki to help, Mead and Duva: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

28 Minsaas dies: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 2, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith; Johan Arthur Johansen, email interview, March 26, 2005.

29 “We … believed”: Johan Arthur Johansen, email interview, March 26, 2005.

30 Christiansen gives coat: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

31 Garrett: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Fred Garrett, affidavit, John D. Murphy Collection, HIA, Stanford, Calif.

32 Tinker: Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005.

33 Mental clarity of Tinker, Harris: Ibid.

34 Louie’s second race: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

35 “made me a professional”: Ibid.

36 Phil taken away: Russell Allen Phillips, affidavit, John D. Murphy Collection, HIA, Stanford, Calif.

37 Zentsuji said to be good camp: Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

38 Phil sent to Ashio: Kelsey Phillips, “A Life Story,” unpublished memoir.

39 Ashio: Roger Mansell, “Ashio POW Camp,” Center for Research, Allied POWs Under the Japanese, http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/camplists/tokyo/Ashio/ashio_main.html, Palo Alto, Calif. (accessed September 19, 2009).

40 Phil’s letter burned: Russell Allen Phillips, letter to Kelsey Phillips, April 1944; Kelsey Phillips, “A Life Story,” unpublished memoir.





Chapter 21: Belief


1 Sylvia crying: Sylvia Flammer, telephone interviews, October 25, 27, 2004.

2 Zamperinis coping: Ibid.; Peter Zamperini, telephone interviews, October 15, 17, 19, 22, 2004; Peter Zamperini, letter to Louis Zamperini, June 3, 1943.

3 Louise writes to General Hale: Louise Zamperini, diary notes, July 13, 1943; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

4 Louie’s trunk arrives: Louise Zamperini, diary notes, October 6, 1943.

5 Gifts for Louie: Louis Zamperini, letter to Edwin Wilber, May 1946.

6 Christmas card for Louie: From papers of Louis Zamperini.

7 “The entire island”: Eastern Mandates (Washington, D.C.: Center for Military History Publications, 1993), p. 14.

8 Wood slat: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

9 Papers on Kwajalein: John Joseph Deasy, telephone interview, April 4, 2005.

10 “I was happy”: Ibid.

11 Condolence letter: Henry Rahaley, letter to Reverend and Mrs. Phillips, June 16, 1943.

12 Oak-leaf clusters: Reverend Russell Phillips, letter to Cecy Perry, July 28, 1943.

13 Reverend Phillips’s plaque: Reverend Russell Phillips, letter to Martha Heustis, March 17, 1944.

14 “I think I have”: Reverend Russell Phillips, letter to Martha Heustis, August 4, 1943.

15 Smitty’s letter to Cecy: George Smith, letter to Cecy Perry, June 19, 1943.

16 Cecy moves to D.C., visits fortune-teller: Terry Hoffman, telephone interview, March 6, 2007.

17 “This year sure”: Delia Robinson, letter to Louise Zamperini, June 23, 1944.

18 “We thought surely”: Mrs. A. J. Deane, letter to Louise Zamperini, June 27, 1944.

19 Death notice: Sylvia Flammer, telephone interviews, October 25, 27, 2004.

20 “None of us”: Ibid.

21 Plan to find Louie: Peter Zamperini, telephone interview, October 19, 2004.





Chapter 22: Plots Afoot


1 Escape plot: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

2 Rations cut: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

3 Louie stealing food, starching shirts: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

4 Barbering job: Ibid.

5 Official says POWs will be killed: John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

6 Stealing map from Mummy: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

7 Getting info about Saipan: Ibid.

8 Sasaki’s sudden change: Ibid.

9 Murder on Tinian: Eric Lash, “Historic Island of Tinian,” Environmental Services, October 2008, vol. 1, 2nd edition; Major General Donald Cook, “20th Air Force Today,” 20th Air Force Association Newsletter, Fall 1998.

10 Infestation, leeches, “You should be happy”: John Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

11 Fitzgerald sees stealing: John Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.

12 Putrid fish, Quack beating: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview; Louis Zamperini, 1946 notes on captive experience; Louis Zamperini, interview by George Hodak, Hollywood, Calif., June 1988, AAFLA.

13 Murder of Gaga: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

14 Louie thinking of home: Ibid.

15 Plan to escape by boat: Ibid.

16 Doolittle raid: Kennedy Hickman, “World War II: The Doolittle Raid,” About.com, http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/aerialcampaigns/p/doolittleraid.htm (accessed October 15, 2009).

17 Kindness of civilians: Boyington, pp. 304–05.

18 Murder of Chinese civilians: Chang, p. 216; Kennedy Hickman, “World War II: The Doolittle Raid,” About.com, http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/aerialcampaigns/p/doolittleraid.htm (accessed October 15, 2009).

19 Average Japanese soldier five foot three: “Battle of the Pacific: How Japs Fight,” Time, February 15, 1943; Tar Shioya, “The Conflict Behind the Battle Lines,” San Francisco Chronicle, September 24, 1995.

20 Civilians attack POWs: Milton McMullen, telephone interview, February 16, 2005; K. P. Burke, Proof Through the Night: A B-29 Pilot Captive in Japan—the Earnest Pickett Story (Salem, Ore.: Opal Creek, 2001), p. 88; Fiske Hanley II, Accused American War Criminal (Austin: Eakin, 1997), pp. 68–69.

21 Preparations for escape, “a fearful joy”: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

22 Suspension of plan: Ibid.

23 Newspaper theft, Harris beating: Ibid.; files on Sueharu Kitamura, RG 331, RAOOH, WWII, 1907–1966, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), NACP; Glenn McConnell, telephone interview, June 8, 2007; John A. Fitzgerald, POW diary, Papers of John A. Fitzgerald, Operational Archives Branch, NHC, Washington, D.C.; Gamble, p. 328.

24 Sasaki’s advice: Affidavit, Louis Zamperini, in file of Nakakichi Asoma, 1945–1952, RG 331: RAOOH, WWII, SCAP, Legal Section, Administration Division (10/02/1945–04/28/1952?), Charges and Specifications, 1945–1948, NACP.





Chapter 23: Monster


1 Appearance of Omori: Bush, p. 150.

2 POW likens Omori to the moon: Wade, p. 83.

3 No birds: Ray “Hap” Halloran and Chester Marshall, Hap’s War (Menlo Park, Calif.: Hallmark, n.d.).

4 Watanabe’s appearance: Weinstein, p. 228; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005.

5 Liken to paws: Draggan Mihailovich, email interview, August 3, 2007.

6 Louie meeting Watanabe: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

7 This man: Frank Tinker, telephone interview, February 20, 2005.

8 Building fire: Louis Zamperini, telephone interview.

9 Watanabe’s history: Martindale, pp. 92–93; Wade, pp. 103–04; Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004; James, p. 278; Mutsuhiro Watanabe (Sgt.), vols. 1–3, 1945–1952, POW 201 File 1945–1947, SCAP, Legal Section, Administrative Division, RAOOH, RG 331, NACP; “From Chief of Hyogo Prefectural Police Force,” November 21, 1950, report, from papers of Frank Tinker.

10 Japanese sign but don’t ratify Geneva Convention: Tanaka, p. 73.

11 Slavery: Martindale, p. 90; Wade, pp. 97–99, 129; Bush, pp. 152–53; Johan Arthur Johansen, Krigsseileren, issue 3, 1990, translated from Norwegian by Nina B. Smith.

12 Lifting thirty tons a day: Wade, p. 99.

13 Men paid ten yen per month: Martindale, p. 111.

14 Those who don’t work receive half rations: Bush, p. 160.

15 Food at Omori: Martindale, p. 120; Bush, p. 159.

16 Nicknames: Ernest O. Norquist, Our Paradise: A GI’s War Diary (Hancock, Wisc.: Pearl-Win, 1989), p. 293; Bush, p. 205.

17 Watanabe’s first days: Wade, pp. 103–05; Tom Wade, telephone interview, January 2, 2005; Bush, pp. 176–79.

18 Hatto thinks Watanabe mad: Yuichi Hatto, written interview, August 28, 2004.

19 “He suddenly saw”: Tom Wade, telephone interview, September 17, 2005.